Insulin: a protein hormone formed from proinsulin in the beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The major fuel-regulating hormone, it is secreted into the blood in response to a rise in concentration of blood glucose or amino acids. Insulin promotes the storage of glucose and the uptake of amino acids, increases protein and lipid synthesis, and inhibits lipolysis and gluconeogenesis.
All true, but it sounds very biased. There is nothing wrong with gluconeogenesis, nor is there anything wrong with carbohydrate restriction. A glucose fueled body and a fatty acid fueled body are both healthy body’s (the latter arguably more health promoting and anti inflammatory). Insulin in and of itself has little to do with body weight and weight gain. The liver, pancreas and brain take care of this. One could potentially eat a ‘perfect’ diet totally devoid of carbohydrates, and still gain weight. if whatever you are eating is spiking your blood sugar and your pancreas is not releasing efficient amounts of insulin to clear the spike, then in turn you will store fat. This goes the same for EVERYTHING YOU EAT. Insulin is required to live, without it you would die. I think people are missing the point when the carbohydrate junk is thrown around, as well as the fear of blood sugar rises.
Lets say, for example, you do a 20 minute heavy lifting session in a fasted state(like first thing in the morning). Your body is PRIMED to produce a spike in blood sugar regardless of what you eat. NOT TO STORE FAT, but to reinstate hormesis in your muscles and deliver nutrients. This is the job of amino acids, but to deliver it you need insulin. Just a quick fortay rant.
See here from an interesting study I finally got around to reading:
However, protein-rich foods and bakery products (rich in fat and refined carbohydrate) elicited insulin responses that were disproportionately higher than their glycemic responses. Total carbohydrate (r = 0.39, P < 0.05, n = 36) and sugar (r = 0.36, P < 0.05,n = 36) contents were positively related to the mean insulin scores, whereas fat (r â€”¿ 0.27,NS, n 36) and protein (r â€”¿ 0.24,NS,n = 38) contents were negatively related. Consideration of insulinscores may be relevant to the dietary management and pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia and may help increase the accuracy of estimating preprandial insulin requirements. However, carbohydrates not the only stimulus for insulin secretion. Protein-rich foods or the addition of protein to a carbohydrate-rich meal can stimulate a modest rise in insulin secretion without increasing blood glucose concentrations, particularly in subjects with diabetes (20â€”22).Similarly, adding a large amount of fat to a carbohydrate-rich meal increases insulin secretion even though plasma glucose responses are reduced (23, 24). Fasting insulin concentrations were not more variable in females than in males and there were no significant differences at various stages of the menstrual cycle. A significant correlation was found between mean fasting insulin concentrations and mean BMI values for the six groups of subjects. On average, fish elicited twice as much insulin secretion as did the equivalent portion of eggs. Within the fruit group, oranges and apples produced a significantly lower GS and IS.
In summary, insulin responses to protein-rich foods are often 50 to 70 percent lower than responses to equivalent amounts of refined carbohydrate-rich foods. So beef does lead to insulin response but much lower than high carbohydrate, especially refined carbohydrate foods. Combine beef with white buns and now you have a real insulin spike. You can do without the bun but not without the beef (protein).
Also, a friend via facebook informed me of this amazing interview, everyone should read if they have time, and then read this guy’s book The Power of Seduction:
From http://www.powerseductionandwar.com/archives//print/robert_greene_yale_speech.phtml :
There are three types of people in this world in dealing with this social reality. There are, what I call, the deniers, the people who deny this reality exists. They almost want to pretend that we are descended from angels and not from primates. That what I am talking about here is cynical. It doesn’t really exist. It doesn’t happen.
Among these deniers, you will find two types. You will find people who are genuinely disturbed by the politicking aspect of human nature. They don’t want any kind of job in which they have to do that. You will find that they are slowly marginalized. They can be happy that way. They are never going to assume a position of great responsibility because it involves all of this.
The other branch of the deniers are the people that are the passive-aggressors. I would classify this woman who had tortured me as a kind of a classic passive-aggressor. People who consciously don’t want to admit that there is any kind of manipulation involved, but unconsciously are playing all kinds of games. In my books, I often describe the many different kinds, the trickiest kind of person to deal with, the passive-aggressors.
The second type of person besides the deniers are those who love this Machiavellian part of our nature and revel in it and are master manipulators, and con artists, and connivers and are very aggressive. They have no problem handling this part. In fact, they love it. This type of person, which usually you will find one or two in an office or in an environment. They can get pretty far, but eventually they are tripped up in life because they are too Machiavellian. They don’t understand that there is the other side to that whole idea of theory of mind and the mirror neurons, which is empathy and cooperation and seducing people and getting them to work with you. They are too much involved with themselves and their own ego and they love manipulating until they go too far and they have a fall in life. There is a wall. They can never get past it.
The third type is what I am calling the radical realist. It is what I am proposing that you adopt. And it goes as follows.
This is our nature. This is how we evolved over millions of years. There is no point in denying it. It is who we are. And not only am I not going to deny it, I am going to accept that this is the human being as it has evolved over all of this time.
In fact, I love it. It’s fine. There is nothing wrong with the fact that in this world people are playing political games. There is nothing wrong with the fact that there are seducers and con artists and it is going on all the time. It is just reality. It is just the world as it is. Stop fighting it. Just accept it.
Within that accepting of it, it is not that you love it and want to go out in the world and play all of these nasty games. It is that you understand they exist. If, occasionally, you have to do them, fine. That’s okay within reason. If it is often other people are practicing them against you, which you will find a lot in your life, once you leave the confines of Yale, that’s okay.
You understand the laws of power. You understand what people are up to, and they can’t necessarily hurt you. In accepting this reality and in dealing with it and studying human nature and this aspect of what I call Machiavellian intelligence, suddenly with that attitude, with that mentality, you have all kinds of power and freedom.
With power comes a degree of freedom. Now, everybody is an individual. Some people like a position of dependence, and they feel happiest when there is somebody taking care of them. But, ultimately, I’m not happy with that because I know that that person will eventually withdraw their support. That unless this is someone who I am going to live with my whole life, that’s a different question, that eventually I am going to be left alone. And that dependency, that love or happiness that came from someone else, I can’t really 100 percent depend on it. I want to be able to have it depend on something that comes from within. Even to love somebody, even if you are going to live with them, is almost a skill that you have to develop, and it has to come from within.
And the only thing that is of value is something that you develop yourself through your life experiences, through maybe some hard times where you learn how to seduce. You learn how to compromise. You learn how to be in a relationship and how to love. And then once you have that skill or whatever you want to call it, then nobody can take it away from you and you have power and you have freedom and a degree of happiness
Amazing stuff, no?
I use to, iin the beginning of refeeding, suffer some massive digestion problems, diarrhea followed by days of wanting to go and getting nothing, and it seems to be a common trend(check out recent comments). The only advice I can offer someone who I don’t know, I don’t believe because eating disorders are all lies, and I don’t think has taken the time to read my blog is this:
*Starving yourself starves the gut flora balance, acid production and basic digestive ability of your body. Obviously, youre going to be faced with these problems upon refeeding. If after you eat a meal the left upper part of your abdomen hurts(below your heart) then you may want to get your pancreas checked. If it is oversecreting insulin you may get a pain from there. If the right side of your body like across from your heart ever aches, that’s your liver get it checked. Anorexics notoriously had bad liver with the inability to manufacture and store glucose causing all kinds of NAFLD problems in the future. * Eat sauerkraut, REAL FUUL FAT yogurt, kimichi, BONE BROTH etc. many complain but VERY FEW follow what I say.
Unless you have other problems going on, meat doesn’t raise glucose levels very much. If one has Insulin Resistance of the liver, the liver can’t or doesn’t release it’s glycogen stores very well. So a large surge of insulin can cause your blood glucose level to go too low, before the liver is finally coaxed into releasing it’s stored glycogen by the surge in adrenaline and cortisol. Protein is essential, carbs are not. Eating both protein and carbs results in additive effect on insulin production. You can only cut protein so much, but you can cut carbs dramatically.
I also cam across this:
“Severe reactive hypoglycemia and have a very good awareness of my pancreatic functions. I can feel insulin pumping out and my pancreas HURTS when it’s required to put out alot of insulin. Also beef is known to secrete more insulin than other meats.Also liquid beef amino supplements are known to enhance muscle growth compared to other animal amino mixes or even whey….I think due to the enhanced insulin. Insulin is a necessary bodily function but you just have to keep it under control. It serves a function don’t forget. It shuttles the nutrients you eat into cells. Eating beef is still much better than eating carbs because although it raises insulin considerably, it also raises glucagon. The insulin is coming out to deal with the amino acids, not sugar. Since it raises glucagon also your blood sugar remains relatively stable. However, there “is” a myth among low carbers regarding meat not raising insulin levels. Mostly due to a fear of insulin. In a normal-functioning metabolism, insulin goes up to signal body cells to absorb the glucose in the blood. This isn’t a bad thing. It’s supposed to work that way. When the glucose gets into the cells, then the insulin level goes back down. “
*Most low carbers don’t have a normal-functioning metabolism. Insulin stays elevated for HOURS, even after blood glucose levels come down, they have an elevated “basal” level of insulin sometimes high enough to interfere with fat oxidation, so they have a lot of trouble losing body fat; both of which lowering carbs is supposed to correct. *
This is known as the dawn phenomenon…google it to find out more, it is a NORMAL body process with eating less carbohydrates.
*Unless you have other problems going on, meat doesn’t raise glucose levels very much. If one has Insulin Resistance of the liver, the liver can’t or doesn’t release it’s glycogen stores very well. So a large surge of insulin can cause your blood glucose level to go too low, before the liver is finally coaxed into releasing it’s stored glycogen by the surge in adrenaline and cortisol. Protein is essential, carbs are not. Eating both protein and carbs results in additive effect on insulin production. You can only cut protein so much, but you can cut carbs dramatically. The real problem is that your insulin mechanism and the pancreas have a memory. Your insulin response to food is based on what you have been eating lately, not what you have eaten just then. It takes a day or two for your insulin response to food to change. However, I will say that if you are significantly insulin resistant and have either hypoglycemia or diabetes, that even if you are zero carb, too much protein can cause problems similar to too many carbs. People who have their insulin/glucagon response damaged and too much protein for me causes the same reactive hypoglycemia one gets with carb intake, so the insulin response is still too high for the glucagon to completely counteract it if you are not careful.
ANNNNNNNND some interesting studies I came across…
The effect of cigarette smoking on carbohydrate metabolism has been investigated in 10 diabetic and 18 non-diabetic subjects. All were habitual smokers. Neither the fasting plasma sugar nor the plasma sugar response to an oral glucose load was significantly altered by smoking. Serum insulin, free fatty acids, cholesterol and triglyceride were measured in 10 non-diabetic patients, and were not significantly altered by smoking. It is concluded that in habitual smokers at least, cigarette smoking does not impair carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, it seems that smoking before or during an oral glucose tolerance test is unlikely to influence the diagnostic value of the test.
Effect of exercise on the disposal of infused ketone bodies in humans.
Féry F, Balasse EO.
Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Free University of Brussels, Belgium.
We previously reported that the stimulatory effect of exercise on the metabolic clearance of ketone bodies in postabsorptive subjects is abolished when plasma ketone body concentrations are elevated above 4 mmol/L by prior fasting. In this study we determined whether this process is related to fasting or to hyperketonemia itself. Eight normal postabsorptive subjects were rendered artificially hyperketonemic (approximately 6 mmol/L) by a constant infusion of acetoacetate and exercised moderately for 2 h. The kinetics of ketone bodies were determined with [14C]acetoacetate or beta-[14C]hydroxybutyrate. The metabolic clearance was slightly increased (approximately 25%) at the beginning of exercise, but this phenomenon was subsequently amplified by the progressive fall in ketonemia, which decreased to about 4 mmol/L at the end of exercise. Taking into account the fact that the metabolic clearance of ketones is inversely related to their concentration, it could be estimated that the direct effect of exercise on the metabolic clearance is negligible. Thus, the inability of exercise to enhance the metabolic clearance of ketones at high physiological plasma ketone levels is a general phenomenon that applies to both endogenous and exogenous ketosis.
The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men.
Bisschop PH, Pereira Arias AM, Ackermans MT, Endert E, Pijl H, Kuipers F, Meijer AJ, Sauerwein HP, Romijn JA.
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets were eucaloric and provided 15% of energy as protein. Postabsorptive glucose production was measured by infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose, and fractional gluconeogenesis was measured by ingestion of 2H2O. Postabsorptive glucose production rates were 13.0 +/- 0.7, 11.4 +/- 0.4, and 9.7 +/- 0.4 micromol/kg x min after high carbohydrate, control, and very low carbohydrate diets, respectively (P < 0.001 among the three diets). Gluconeogenesis was about 14% higher after the very low carbohydrate diet (6.3 +/- 0.2 micromol/kg x min; P = 0.001) compared to the control diet, but was not different between the high carbohydrate and control diets (5.5 +/- 0.3 vs. 5.5 +/- 0.2 micromol/kg x min). The rates of glycogenolysis were 7.5 +/- 0.5, 5.9 +/- 0.3, and 3.4 +/- 0.3 micromol/kg x min, respectively (P < 0.001 among the three diets). We conclude that under eucaloric conditions in healthy subjects, dietary carbohydrate content affects the rate of postabsorptive glucose production mainly by modulation of glycogenolysis. In contrast, dietary carbohydrate content affects the postabsorptive rate of gluconeogenesis minimally, as evidenced by only a slight increase in gluconeogenesis during severe carbohydrate restriction.
Gluconeogenesis and energy expenditure after a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet.
Veldhorst MA, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Westerterp KR.
NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Netherlands. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: High-protein diets have been shown to increase energy expenditure (EE).
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study whether a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet (H diet) increases gluconeogenesis and whether this can explain the increase in EE.
DESIGN: Ten healthy men with a mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 23.0 +/- 0.8 and age of 23 +/- 1 y received an isoenergetic H diet (H condition; 30%, 0%, and 70% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively) or a normal-protein diet (N condition; 12%, 55%, and 33% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively) for 1.5 d according to a randomized crossover design, and EE was measured in a respiration chamber. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and fractional gluconeogenesis were measured via infusion of [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose and ingestion of (2)H(2)O; absolute gluconeogenesis was calculated by multiplying fractional gluconeogenesis by EGP. Body glycogen stores were lowered at the start of the intervention with an exhaustive glycogen-lowering exercise test.
RESULTS: EGP was lower in the H condition than in the N condition (181 +/- 9 compared with 226 +/- 9 g/d; P < 0.001), whereas fractional gluconeogenesis was higher (0.95 +/- 0.04 compared with 0.64 +/- 0.03; P < 0.001) and absolute gluconeogenesis tended to be higher (171 +/- 10 compared with 145 +/- 10 g/d; P = 0.06) in the H condition than in the N condition. EE (resting metabolic rate) was greater in the H condition than in the N condition (8.46 +/- 0.23 compared with 8.12 +/- 0.31 MJ/d; P < 0.05). The increase in EE was a function of the increase in gluconeogenesis (DeltaEE = 0.007 x Deltagluconeogenesis – 0.038; r = 0.70, R(2) = 0.49, P < 0.05). The contribution of Deltagluconeogenesis to DeltaEE was 42%; the energy cost of gluconeogenesis was 33% (95% CI: 16%, 50%).
CONCLUSIONS: Forty-two percent of the increase in energy expenditure after the H diet was explained by the increase in gluconeogenesis. The cost of gluconeogenesis was 33% of the energy content of the produced glucose.
PS….will post some pictures when I get home tonight, after a feast 🙂
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